Reinforcement Training Neural Networks

Neural network software
artificial neural networks Learning paradigms
There are three major learning paradigms, each corresponding to a particular abstract learning task. These are supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. Usually any given type of network architecture can be employed in any of those tasks.
Supervised learning
In supervised learning, we are given a set of example pairs and the aim is to find a function f in the allowed class of functions that matches the examples. In other words, we wish to infer how the mapping implied by the data and the cost function is related to the mismatch between our mapping and the data.
Unsupervised learning
In unsupervised learning we are given some data x, and a cost function which is to be minimized which can be any function of x and the network's output, f. The cost function is determined by the task formulation. Most applications fall within the domain of estimation problems such as statistical modeling, compression, filtering, blind source separation and clustering.
Reinforcement learning
In reinforcement learning, data x is usually not given, but generated by an agent's interactions with the environment. At each point in time t, the agent performs an action yt and the environment generates an observation xt and an instantaneous

Source: NEURAL NETWORKS

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Making money in the future

2008-06-06 08:24:10 by ---

How can musicians make money when there's little market for recorded music? Today's NYTimes has some insight.
full article:
Bits, Bands and Books
By PAUL KRUGMAN
June 6, 2008
...
In 1994, one of those gurus, Esther Dyson, made a striking prediction: that the ease with which digital content can be copied and disseminated would eventually force businesses to sell the results of creative activity cheaply, or even give it away. Whatever the product — software, books, music, movies — the cost of creation would have to be recouped indirectly: businesses would have to “distribute intellectual property free in order to sell services and relationships.”
For example, she described how some software companies gave their product away but earned fees for...

Language processing deficits may occur at stuttering onset  — News-Medical.net
A study of preschool-age children has shown key differences in the neural networks mediating language processing between those who stutter and those who do not. Specifically, children who stuttered demonstrated slower, less efficient lexical access and ...

Teaching the brain to speak again  — Medical Xpress
Language training that focuses on principles of normal language processing stimulates the recovery of neural networks that support language." Thompson will discuss research she will conduct as principal investigator of a $12 million National Institutes ...

Hauser gives Cambridge lecture on 'internet of things'  — ElectronicsWeekly.com
Hauser also believes that advanced parallel processing techniques and neural networks will have important roles in design. The Lecture at the Moller Centre in Cambridge was sponsored by Rodhe & Schwarz and organised by Cambridge Wireless, the ...

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