Evolving Modular Neural Networks through exaptation

On the Human: Rethinking the natural selection of human language
the evolution of language

by: Terrence W. Deacon

Introduction

Since Darwin’s time, the human language capacity has been a perennially cited paragon of extreme complexity that defies the explanatory powers of natural selection. And it is not just critics of Darwinism who have argued that this most distinctive human capacity is problematic. Alfred Russel Wallace—the co-discoverer of natural selection theory and in many ways more of an ultra-Darwinian than Darwin himself—famously argued that the human intellectual capacity which makes language possible, is developed to a level of complexity that far exceeds what is achievable through natural selection alone. While fiercely defending natural selection theory with respect to the traits of other species, he argued that in the case of humans, “… natural selection could only have endowed the savage with a brain a little superior to that of an ape.” (p. 392) And Charles Lyell—who personally promoted Darwin’s work and generally supported the evolutionary perspective—also worried that language was just too complex to have evolved by natural means. Not only are the vast vocabulary and baroquely structured grammar and syntax of even the most simple of natural languages orders of magnitude more complex than any other species’ communication system, but the capacity this all provides for expressing esoteric concepts and conveying aesthetic experiences seems far removed from anything with direct adaptive consequence.

Source: On the Human

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Dollar Plunges to Record Low Against Euro

2004-11-05 11:47:01 by ---

NEW YORK -- The dollar dropped to record lows against the euro on Friday, succumbing to negative sentiment and erasing all of the U.S. currency's earlier gains following a robust U.S. October employment report.
Technically driven trading also played a role in the dollar's fall.
The euro surged above $1.2900 and then breached the prior record high around $1.2927 hit in February, reaching new record peaks around $1.2950, according to Reuters data.
The dollar index, a measure of the U.S. dollar's performance against a basket of currencies , fell to a nine-year low. The U.S. currency also fell to six-month lows against the yen and 6-1/2 month lows against the Australian dollar.
Traders were struck by the dollar's inability to sustain a robust rally fueled by the...

I gave up watching tv about 3 - 4 years ago.

2005-04-11 21:02:11 by FellowTraveler

I now use my tv for watching rented movies or programs I taped and collected before.
I do miss the history channel and other educational stations,
but over all I have more time for other activities the likes of this forum etc.
Now back to an issue of money :)
So called "free trade" works for this country under the guide lines of national security,
though the cost of this free trade is becoming very heavily taxed :)
This monopoly of money(currency) we are allowed to use - is controlled as it's tradable value-
One of the hidden taxation is inflation,
a million has the buying power of just a half million within less than a decade.
This fact keeps us on the treadmill of buy and selling (trading-investing),
else our savings soon...

SB Corp dividends aggregate to P1.37B  — Philippine Star
This includes foreign currency exchange (forex) risk cover fee of P76.1 million, guarantee fees amounting to P18.9 million, withholding taxes on placements at P21.4million and taxes and licenses amounting to P11.7 million. Though at present SB Corp. is …

Members of Bank Fraud Ring Sentenced in $3.7 Million Scam  — Federal Bureau of Investigation

... information presented in the public record: Between 2006-2007, Whitted operated a company known as “Mastermind Events” in Conyers, Georgia, which was supposed to host seminars, including foreign currency exchange (FOREX) trading training events.


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