Evolving Modular Neural Networks through exaptation
by: Terrence W. Deacon
Since Darwin’s time, the human language capacity has been a perennially cited paragon of extreme complexity that defies the explanatory powers of natural selection. And it is not just critics of Darwinism who have argued that this most distinctive human capacity is problematic. Alfred Russel Wallace—the co-discoverer of natural selection theory and in many ways more of an ultra-Darwinian than Darwin himself—famously argued that the human intellectual capacity which makes language possible, is developed to a level of complexity that far exceeds what is achievable through natural selection alone. While fiercely defending natural selection theory with respect to the traits of other species, he argued that in the case of humans, “… natural selection could only have endowed the savage with a brain a little superior to that of an ape.” (p. 392) And Charles Lyell—who personally promoted Darwin’s work and generally supported the evolutionary perspective—also worried that language was just too complex to have evolved by natural means. Not only are the vast vocabulary and baroquely structured grammar and syntax of even the most simple of natural languages orders of magnitude more complex than any other species’ communication system, but the capacity this all provides for expressing esoteric concepts and conveying aesthetic experiences seems far removed from anything with direct adaptive consequence.
Source: On the Human
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I gave up watching tv about 3 - 4 years ago.2005-04-11 21:02:11 by FellowTraveler
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I do miss the history channel and other educational stations,
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Now back to an issue of money :)
So called "free trade" works for this country under the guide lines of national security,
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